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Mass Emission Standards for automobiles – Overview and Technical Details of BS IV, V and VI


Rising transportation activity—the ever-increasing demand to move more people and goods further and faster—is both a cause and an effect of India’s rapid economic growth. The growth in personal as well as freight vehicles, and the corresponding surge in fuel use, is expected to continue for the next several decades. The increase in mobility may be to boost the standard of living, there are some unpleasant consequences associated with it. These include growing reliance on imported fossil fuels, which are responsible for climate change, and increasing emissions of pollutants responsible for adverse human health effects.

 Increased mobility will provide enhanced economic opportunities for all sectors of society. It is necessary to steer this growth in mobility in a manner that will minimize the harmful impacts of pollution from a burgeoning vehicle fleet.Developing a comprehensive and stringent road map soon would not only create regulatory certainty for the oil and automotive sectors and their supplier base but would also, if followed closely, lock in critical pollutant reductions that could help many cities achieve better ambient air quality.

By implementing Bharat V &VI emission standards as soon as possible, the country would be able to take full advantage of the fuel savings offered by diesel technology without raising alarms about the increasing burden of air pollution. Apart from supplying low-sulfur fuels and mandating stricter vehicle emission standards, India will also revamp its in-use emissions testing and controls program. The current Pollution Under Control (PUC) program is not linked to a vehicle’s original emission standard and predicted deterioration rate. Given that the country is already putting in place many new vehicle testing centers, it can take advantage of these facilities to establish a national in-use testing program. The experience of other countries—particularly the European countries and United States—serves as an example of what is possible in India.

Major difference between BS IV,V & VI for LDV (Light Duty Vehicles) and HDV(Heavy Duty Vehicles)
A.    Light Duty Vehicles –GVW<3.5T
1)      Revision in test procedure of exhaust and evaporative emission.
2)      Separation of HC & NOx emission levels
3)      Modified emission cycle by deletion of 40 seconds idling.
4)      Durability mileage increased to 100000 for Euro IV& 1,60000 for Euro V while in India for BSIV it was 80,000 .  The proposed level for BSV is 1,20,000 & for BSVI it is 160,000 Kms.
5)      For BS V & BS VI – PM, CO, HC limits have became stricter than BS IV .
6)      For BS V & BS VI-In-service Conformity has been introduced with stricter OBD threshold limits.
7)      For BS VI, RDE (Real Driving Emissions)  & WLTP (World  Wide Light Duty Test Procedure) two new cycles will be introduced at a later stage based on European experience.
 B.     Heavy Duty Vehicles-GVW>3.5 T
1)      BS IV to BSV- NOx is reduced from 3.5 to 2 gm/kwh.
2)      Durability limits of emission control systems have been  made stringent.
3)      BS V to BSVI- The test cycles have been changed from BS V to BS VI i.e. from  ESC/ETC/ELR to WHSC/WHTC. They have been made  more realistic.
4)      There are stricter limits on PM & NOx in the BSVI and also addition of particulate number in BS VI.
FUEL PROPERTY CHANGES

MES


*Reduction in Sulphur content is one of the major challenges for refineries.

Heavy Duty Vehicle Engines – Steady Cycle
*From BS – IV to BS – V there is substantial reduction in NOx.
From BS – V to BS – VI there is substantial reduction in NOx and Particulate matter. There is also a cap on number of particulate matter, which will be measured in the test.

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 Heavy Duty Vehicle Engines – Transient Cycle
*From BS – IV to BS – V there is substantial reduction in NOx.
From BS – V to BS – VI there is substantial reduction in NOx and Particulate matter. There is also a cap on number of particulate matter, which will be measured in the test.

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Gasoline Passenger Car Emission Norms
From BS – IV to BS – V there is substantial reduction in NOx and limits on NMHC (Non Methane Hydro Carbon) and Particulate matter.
*From BS – V to BS – VI there is cap on number of particulate matter, which will be measured in the test.

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Technology Used for BSIII, BSIV, BSV & BSVI for Diesel Commercial Vehicles
 PCCI- Premixed Charge Compression Ignition    LTC – Low Temperature Combustion
VGT – Variable Geometry Technology  
Technology used for BS-IV


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