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Editorial Articles


volume-10, 8 - 14 June 2019

Dairy Education in India

Present Status and Future Prospects

 

Varinder Pal Singh & Anil Kumar Puniya

The livestock sector is floating for revolution in the developing countries, where major increase in milk  production is anticipated in next few decades. Livestock sector contributes about 26.90 % of the total gross domestic product from agricultural sector in India. This sector in addition to regular income, provides house hold nutritional security and employment to small and marginal rural households. This regular source of income has a huge impact on minimising risks to income as income from crop sector is seasonal. It also absorbs the surplus family labour of the farmers and thus helps in earning extra income throughout the year. Moreover, livestock is a security asset to be sold in times of crisis. If we peep inside the livestock sector, dairying is the major enterprise contributing about 2/3rd of the total income from livestock sector. The farmers are intrinsically linked to dairy farming to produce milk and milk products for home consumption and for subsidiary income.

Indian dairy sector has evolved from rags to riches. In the pre-independence era, there was scarcity of milk and there was dependence on imports. Owing to development of dairy sector in various phases of operation flood and de-licensing of dairy industry, India emerged as top milk producing nation. During the year 2017-18, national milk production was recorded at 176.3 million tonnes (20.12 % of world milk production i.e. 876 million tonnes) far ahead of USA (98.6 million tonnes) and China (39 million tonnes) and it has increased from 31.6 million tonnes during 1980-81. Further, the national level per capita milk availability has increased from 128 g/capita/day during 1980-81 to 375 g/capita/day during 2017-18 with Punjab state topping the table with as high as 1120 g (Fig1).

Milk is a highly perishable food commodity. The number of bacteria multiplies exponentially after the milk is received from the animals. Hence, it requires immediate cooling for keeping the bacterial growth under control. The surplus raw milk should be marketed without any delay so as to maintain the quality of milk. Alternately, the raw milk can be converted into different types of value added milk products having elongated shelf life. The processing of raw milk into milk products enhances the value of raw milk by at least 20-25%, which can go a long way in generating additional income and employment opportunities in the country.

The Indian dairy industry comprises of two sectors i.e. organized sector comprising of cooperative, private and government milk plants and un-organized sector comprising of milk vendors, halwais, creameries etc. To the much surprise, the organized sector is still processing less than a quarter of milk production in India, whereas in developed countries this figure is as high as 90%. The states with large proportion of organized processing are Gujarat (49.1%), Maharashtra (40.5%), Karnataka (39.5%) and Tamil Nadu (30.6%). Punjab state having highest milk productivity and highest per capita milk availability, ranks 10th with 10.1 % in organized milk processing. Considering ever increasing demand for quality milk products emanating from increasing urbanization, increasing income levels, changing food habits and increasing health awareness, the level of organized processing of milk need to be enhanced to meet the demand. 

Future development of dairy industry is possible only by giving proper importance to the processing of milk and developing right kind of human resource for dairy and food industry. Persons with different levels of education are required for this purpose e.g. diploma, degree, post graduate and doctorate level. Hence, many institutions are offering education in dairying. But, there is lack of awareness among the masses regarding the importance of dairy education in India. Graduation in the field of dairy science is the combination of the five subjects such as Dairy Technology, Dairy Engineering, Dairy Microbiology, Dairy Chemistry, Dairy Economics and Business Management. The objective of dairy technology education is to make available trained human resources to the dairy industry, to educate the milk producers, entrepreneurs and consumers about the quality aspect of milk by imparting short term training in various aspects of milk handling.There is semester system in dairy technology education, where students are taught various related courses for seven semesters and sent to relevant industry for in-plant practical hands on training for complete one semester along with in-plant trainings during summer breaks.

Various state level agricultural or animal sciences universities along with some national institutes are offering degree level courses in dairy technology i.e. B.Tech.(Dairy Technology).The number of institutions offering education in dairy increased from 10 in 1990 to 26 during 2019 which includes a couple of private institutions.The eligibility criteria for admission to dairy technology course is senior secondary (10+2) with physics, chemistry and mathematics (50 % marks in aggregate for general category and 40 % for SC/ST category).In most of the states, the admission is made on the basis of entrance tests common to other agricultural and animal science courses for filling 85 % seats under state quota. The admission is based on the merit of candidate in entrance test.The application forms for these entrance tests are usually available in the month of April every year. The reservation of seats is as per state/central government rules and regulations.In addition to above, the remaining 15% seats under Indian Council of Agricultural Research quota are filled through 'All India Entrance Examination for Admission'. This examination is conducted by the 'National Testing Agency'. It is a national level entrance exam which is conducted once in a year.

Future prospects: The future target of the national milk production is 254.5 million tonnes by 2021-22 and to bring more than 50 % of milk produced under the organized sector for procurement as against the present 25%.To meet these targets and to enhance the milk handling levels, it is necessary to produce professionals, who understand the nature of this highly perishable natural food product. In this scenario, dairy technology education has a lot of scope. After completing B.Tech (Dairy Technology), the pass outs can get employment in various areas like milk procurement, milk processing, milk quality check etc in private as well as cooperative milk plants. They can also get employment in the food industries dealing with functional foods & infant foods and industries dealing with dairy equipment & machinery. Further, by pursuing higher education in various branches of dairy science, the candidates can get employment in teaching, research and extension cadre position in colleges and universities. A number of dairy graduates also join higher studies in dairy and food sciences abroad. Not ending here, the way forward is open in various competitive examinations like civil services, banking etc at par with other graduates.

State Wise List of Dairy Technology Colleges in India

College/University

State

College of Dairy Technology, Tirupati, Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University-SVVU, Tirupati-517502

Andhra Pradesh

Sanjay Gandhi Institute of Dairy Technology, Jagdeo Path, Patna, Bihar Animal Sciences University-BASU, Bihar Veterinary College Campus, Patna -800014

Bihar

Sheth M.C. College of Dairy Science, Anand Agricultural University (AAU), Anand- 388001

Gujarat

College of Dairy Science, Amreli, Kamdhenu University, Gandhinagar-382010

Gujarat

Parul Institute of Technoogy, Parul University, Limda, Waghodia, Vadodara, 391760

Gujarat

Shri G.N. Patel Dairy Science & Food Technology College, Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Banaskantha - 385506

Gujarat

Dairy Science College, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute-NDRI, Karnal-132001

Haryana

College of Dairy Science and Technology, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences-LUVAS, Hisar-125001

Haryana

Dairy Science College, Hebbal, Bengaluru, Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Nandinagar, Bidar -585401

Karnataka

Dairy Science College, Mahagaon, Kalaburagi, Karnataka, Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University,  Nandinagar, Bidar-585401

Karnataka

College of Dairy Sciences & Technology, Mannuthy, Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University -KVASU-Pookode, Wayanad, Thiruvananthapuram-673576

Kerala

College of Dairy Science and Technology, Pookode, Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University -KVASU-Pookode, Wayanad, Thiruvananthapuram-673576

Kerala

College of Dairy Science and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University -KVASUPookode, Wayanad, Thiruvananthapuram-673576

Kerala

College of Dairy Science and Technology, Kolahalamedu, Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University -KVASU-Pookode, Wayanad, Thiruvananthapuram-673576

Kerala

College of Dairy Technology, Warud, Pusad, Yaovatmal, Maharashtra Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Telankhedi, Nagpur -440001

Maharashtra

College of Dairy Technology, Udgir, Latur, Maharashtra Animal and Fisheries Sciences University,Telankhedi, Nagpur -440001

Maharashtra

College of Dairy Science and Technology, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University-GADVASU, Ludhiana-141004

Punjab

College of Dairy and Food Science Technology, Maharana Pratap University of Agricultural and Technology-MPUAT, Udaipur -313001

Rajasthan

College of Food and Dairy Technology, Alamathy- Koduvalli, Chennai - 600052, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Madhavaram Milk Colony, Chennai -600 051

Tamil Nadu

Warner College of Dairy Technology, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture Technology and Sciences-SHUATS, Allahabad -211007

Uttar Pradesh

Faculty of Dairy Technology at Mohanpur, Dist- Nadia, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, 68, K.B. Sarani, Belgachia, Kolkata -700037

West Bengal

 

In addition to the institutions mentioned above, a couple of private institutions are coming up to provide dairy technology education viz. Desh Bhagat University, Mandi Gobindgarh; RIMT University, Mandi Gobindgarh; Maharishi Arvind University, Jaipur; Pacific University, Udaipur; National backward Krushi Vidyapeet, Solapur etc.

To sum up, it is worth mentioning here that dairy education is having a bright future having plenty of job opportunities available along with option to pursue higher studies here or abroad. The dairy graduates can also come up as entrepreneurs starting their own business in milk processing creating self-employment as well as creating job opportunities to other skilled and un-skilled persons, thus becoming job providers rather than becoming job seekers. But, there is little knowledge among the new entrants after senior secondary level about this stream. At this stage, a major question arises after parents and students; which stream to join after senior secondary level? They are in such a cross road that making decision out of so many options is not easy one. With the above background, we hope that the dairy education will certainly enter into their choice list and they can plan to try their luck in getting entry to this stream.

The authors are faculty members at College of Science & Technology, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana (Punjab),

Email : akpuniya@gmail.com

Views expressed are personal.

(Image Courtesy : Google)