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In-Depth Jobs

volume-46, 16 - 22 February, 2019

Translation as a Career and its Scope-II

Dr. Bharat Singh Negi & Prabha Negi


Multimedia Localization

Videos, graphics, animations, GIFs, info-graphics - all this can be grouped under multimedia; and this is very important today, as more and more companies are creating multimedia content to widen their audience reach and keep them engaged. Localizing this content can get quite tricky though it may look simple from the outside - as it has to be appropriate for the local culture, and appeal to the customers in that region. If you don't do it correctly, you could end up offending your audience - and drive them away.

Various types of translation require different ways of handling. As a result, many translators specialize in different fields of translation where they possess the best expertise and experience. It is very rare to find a translator who is able to handle all types of translation and produce high quality work.

Oral Translation

This translation is done by word of mouth. It is often referred as interpretation irrespective of the nature of the environment in which it takes place. It may be professional or nonprofessional.

Written translation

Here the translation is done in writing. The text is written from the source language into the target language and is presented in document form. The difference between the oral translation and written translation is very clear here as we have defined them respectively. Whereas oral translation is performed by an interpreter, written translation is performed by a translator

Computer/machine based translation

This is a type of translation where translations are performed using programed software. The software analyses the text, detects the language and produces the translated version in the target language. However, the above major types of translations have several sub-fields or types of translations under them which include the following:

WThis is where the translation of a document is done on word-for-word translation basis. Here, sometimes the meaning of the whole document may not be given much attention but just translate each word the way it is from the original language to the target language.

Literal translation

This majorly works on the grammatical constructions of statements to maintain their meaning in the translated document. It clearly indicates the problem to be solved in the translation process. It deals with maintaining the essay form of the document, idioms used etc.

Free translations

These are translations majorly carried out in the natural form of the target language that is the context and the syntax for easy understanding by the natives of the target language but as well preserves the original meaning of the document.

Idiomatic translation

This is more like the free translations where the document is translated maintaining the original meaning but adding in the natural phrases and idioms of the target language for easy understanding.

Interpretive translations

These are translations that provide further interpretations, descriptions and meaning of the original or source text but not just simply the translation of words in the text or document.

Faithful translation

These are translations that tend to remain faithful to the original text or document by trying hard to reproduce the contextual presentation and the cultural words used in the document when translating the document. Therefore, for any translator or translation agency to perfect their translation services, they have to first fully understand the different types of translation and how to undertake them for better use of both the original and the translated document. Understanding these types of translation plays a significant role while undertaking

any translation job. Translators need to determine which kind of translation fits which situation and environment rather than simply word conversions from one language to another.

When you need a translation services, it is therefore advised to consult a translation agency providing professional translation services. This is because translation companies have a much better understanding of these translation types and they can guide appropriately. This is to ensure perfect translation of a given text or word to match the audience, environment or situation. Translators always command different skills and expertise in their respective fields of translation. The best source to avail a translator with skills relative to your requirement is through translation agencies. They always work hard to produce perfect translations for their clients

Interpreter or Translation Courses in India

Education for Interpreters and Translators

A bachelor's degree is typically needed to become an interpreter or translator along with proficiency in at least two languages, one of which is usually English.

High school students interested in becoming an interpreter or translator should take a broad range of courses that focus on foreign languages and English writing and comprehension.

Beyond high school, people interested in becoming interpreters or translators have numerous educational options. Those in college typically choose a specific language as their major, such as Spanish or French. Although many jobs require a bachelor's degree, majoring in a language is not always necessary.

Through community organizations, students interested in sign language interpreting may take introductory classes in American Sign Language (ASL) and seek out volunteer opportunities to work with people who are deaf or hard of hearing.

Interpreter and Translator Training

Interpreters and translators generally do not need any formal training, as they are expected to be able to interpret and translate before they are hired. However, those working in the community as court or medical interpreters or translators are more likely to complete job-specific training programs or certificates.

Continuing education is a requirement for most state court and medical interpreting certification programs. It is offered by professional interpreter and translator associations such as the American Translators Association and the National Association of Judiciary Interpreters on a regular basis.

Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations for Interpreters and Translators

There is currently no universal certification required of interpreters and translators beyond passing the required court interpreting exams offered by most states. However, workers can take a variety of tests that show proficiency. For example, the American Translators Association provides certification in 29 language combinations. The federal courts offer court interpreter certification for Spanish language interpreters. At the state level, the courts offer certification in at least 20 languages. The National Association of the Deaf and the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf jointly offer certification for general sign language interpreters. In addition, the registry offers specialty tests in legal interpreting, speech reading, and deaf-to-deaf interpreting-which includes interpreting among deaf speakers of different native languages and from ASL to tactile signing.

Other Experience for Interpreters and Translators

Other helpful experience for pursuing this career include spending time in a foreign country, interacting directly with foreign cultures, and studying a variety of subjects in English and at least one other language. Some students study a specialty such as law, engineering, or medicine in order to provide a higher level of interpreting and translation. A good way for translators to learn firsthand about the occupation is to start working in-house for a translation company. Doing informal or volunteer work is an excellent way for people seeking interpreter or translator jobs to gain experience. Volunteer opportunities for interpreters are available through community organiz-ations, hospitals, and sporting events, such as marathons, that involve international competitors. Paid or unpaid internships are other ways that interpreters and translators can gain experience. Escort interpreting may offer an opportunity for inexperienced candidates to work alongside a more experienced interpreter. Interpreters also may find it easier to begin working in industries with particularly high demand for language services, such as court or medical interpreting.

Whatever path of entry new interpreters and translators pursue, they should develop mentoring relationships with experienced workers in the field to build their skills and confidence and to establish and expand a network of contacts. Mentoring may be formal, such as that received through a professional association, or informal, such as that engaged in with a coworker or an acquaintance who has experience as an interpreter or translator. Both the American Translators Association and the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf offer formal mentoring programs.

Advancement for Interpreters and Translators

After interpreters and translators have enough experience, they can move up to more difficult assignments, seek certification, and obtain editorial responsibility. They can also manage or start their own business.

Many self-employed interpreters and translators choose to become self-employed as a means to advance. They may submit resumes and samples to different translation and interpreting companies who will match their skills with various jobs. Many get work on the basis of their reputation or through referrals from clients or colleagues. Some may also start their own companies, where they hire other translators and interpreters to work for them.

Important Qualities for Interpreters and Translators

  • Business skills. Self-employed interpreters and translators need general business skills to manage their finances and careers successfully. They must set prices for their work, bill customers, keep records, and market their services in order to build their client base.
  • Interpreters and translators must be able to concentrate while others are speaking or moving around them.
  • Cultural sensitivity. Interpreters and translators must be sensitive to cultural differences and expectations among the people whom they are helping to communicate. Successful interpreting and translating is a matter not only of knowing the words in different languages but also of understanding people's cultures.
  • Sign language interpreters must be able to make quick and coordinated hand, finger, and arm movements when interpreting.
  • Interpersonal skills. Interpreters and translators, particularly those who are self-employed, must be able to get along with those who hire or use their services in order to retain clients and attract new business.
  • Listening skills. Interpreters must listen carefully when interpreting for audiences to ensure that they hear and interpret correctly.
  • Reading skills. Translators must be able to read in all of the languages in which they are working.
  • Speaking skills. Interpreters and translators must speak clearly in all of the languages in which they are working.
  • Writing skills. Translators must be able to write clearly and effectively in all of the languages in which they are working.

Qualification: There are various types of related courses available with universities and other institutions; these are certificate, diploma and degree courses. Qualifications depend on the level of the course. An acquaintance with a foreign language is always advisable for joining this field. This can be obtained through short term training courses moving from basic to advanced levels with the institutions like Alliance Francaise (www.afindia.org) or Max Muller Bhavan (www.goe the.de/unn/adr/wwt/ina/deindex.hem)

Reputed Institutions In India:

  1. School of Language, Litera-ture and Cultural Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi (www.jnu.ac.in)
  2. Central Institute of English and Foreign Languages, Hyderabad, (www.ciefl.ac.in)
  3. University of Delhi (www.du. ac.in)
  4. University of Mumbai (www.mu.ac.in)
  5. Instituto Hispania-Spanish Language & Cultural Centre (www.institutohispania.com)
  6. Embassy of Portugal, Instituto Camoes-Portughese Cultural Centre, New Delhi (www.icccpindia.com)
  7. Indo-Japanese Association, Oricon House, 7th Floor, 12 k Dubash Marg, Mumbai
  8. JN Academy of Languages, New Delhi (www.bvbdelhi. org)

Post Graduate Diploma in Translation

Post Graduate Diploma in Translation is diploma level course in English translation. This course provides basic skills in Hindi and English both language so that a candidate can translate any script work in Hindi to English or vice versa. Students who have an interest in Hindi and English literature can opt this course. The candidates who have a degree in bachelor's program are eligible for the course.Post Graduate Diploma in Translation is a trending course these days.

Post Graduate Diploma in Translation (PGDT) is a postgraduate Diploma Level Linguistic course. The Course aims to communicate Translation from English to Hindi and vice-versa. This course has been prepared to keep in view the need for conversion in our socio-cultural and expert areas.

Post Graduate Diploma in Translation Duration: 12 months

Post Graduate Diploma in Translation Eligibility: Graduation

Post Graduate Diploma in Translation Colleges:

There are various colleges and universities providing the course some of them are as follows:

  • Saga Institute of Management Studies - SIMS, Malappuram
  • Bhagat Phool Singh Mahila Vishwavidyalaya - BPSMV, Sonepat
  • Brihan Maharashtra College of Commerce, Pune
  • Gujarat University - GU, Ahmedabad

(The lists are indicative only)


(Dr. Bharat Singh Negi,  teaches  English at  Directorate of Education, Govt. of NCT of Delhi & Ms. Prabha Negi is Freelancer, E-mail : prabha1102@gmail.com)