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In-Depth Jobs


Issue no 25, 17-23 September 2022

Career Opportunities in Fisheries Science

Dr. Niranjan Sarang Prof. Kashti Prerna Deorao

India is blessed with abundant and diverse fisheries resources which include freshwater, marine-water and brackish-water fisheries resources. Our country has a long coastal line of 8129 kms extending from Gujarat to West Bengal. We are blessed with 0.5 million square km of continental shelf and 2.02 million square km of Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). In inland resources, India has total rivers length of 29000 kms including 14 major rivers, 44 medium rivers and uncountable number of small rivers. Ganga and Brahmaputra river basins are some of the most suitable sites for freshwater aquaculture which cover almost half of the farming area. Estuaries system is main source for brackish water aquaculture which cover an area of 0.29 million ha. Both natural and manmade reservoirs are ready source of both capture and culture fisheries which cover total area of 3.15 million ha. The total area of ponds and tanks for aquaculture is estimated to be 12 million ha for brackish water aquaculture and more than 2.85 million ha for freshwater aquaculture. India is home to more than 10% of global fish diversity. High diversity of fishes includes marine species, warm water species, brackish water species and coldwater species. Indian fisheries not only fulfil the domestic market demand but also considerably contribute in export earnings. Fisheries sector assures nutritional security and also becomes cheap source of animal protein. India holds second position in the world with total fish production of 14.16 million metric ton (mmt), the marine sector contributes 3.72 mmt and inland sector contribute 10.43 mmt (2019-20). The total export has reached worth Rs. 46662.85 crores. Due to this huge production, consumption and export, fisheries sector has become an important part of Indian economy. Percentage contribution of fisheries sector in Indian economy is 1.24% (2018-2019) and the percentage contribution of fisheries sector in Indian agriculture is 7.28%. Still the production is not sufficient to fulfil the demand of the people as increasing population increases the demand of fish as food. It is a task for farmer's community to increase the fish production so there is a need to develop and adopt technologies which give high yield of fish and enhanced income to farmers. In achieving these objectives, fisheries education, research and extension play significant roles.

Need for Technical Manpower in Fisheries : India has huge fisheries potential in both marine and freshwater sectors. So many people are directly or indirectly depend on the fisheries sector through culture or capture fisheries for their livelihood. Large area is available for freshwater, marine water and brackish water aquaculture. So the fisheries sector plays an important role in Indian economy. Fisheries sector also serves as a means of food security and also generates employment. Culturing, net mending, boat building, manufacturing of fishing accessories, aqua feed preparation, antibiotic and drugs and many other related activities are ancillary activities associated with fisheries sector. There is a need of technical manpower for culture, production, conservation, management and sustainable utilization and development of fisheries. Technical manpower becomes an intermediate link between researchers and farmers which implicate new technology at field level. Various fisheries institutes under ICAR (Indian Council of Agricultural Research) and SAUs (State Agricultural Universities) are providing fisheries education to students and obviously fulfil the need of technical manpower.

Fisheries Research Institutes : Some research institutes are working to invent new techniques for increasing the production, conservation, management and sustainable utilization of fisheries resources. Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI) is conducting research in marine sector for increasing production of marine fishes likewise, Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute (CIFRI) is conducting research on inland sector. Central Institute of Fisheries Technology (CIFT) is working for development of suitable technology for culture, capture and processing of fishes. Central Institute of Fisheries Education (CIFE) on the other hand is fully engaged in research, education and extension activities. National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources (NBFGR) is working for conservation and maintenance of fish genetic resources. Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture (CIFA) and Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture (CIBA) are engaged in developing new technologies for Freshwater and Brackishwater Aquaculture. Directorate of Coldwater Fisheries Research (DCFR) is specially working in the field of cold water fisheries. These fisheries research institutes are doing research for the betterment of fisheries sector, however, there is a gap between researchers and farmers which can be filled by the availability of trained technical manpower.

S.no

Name of the Institute

Established (year)

1.       

ICAR - Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Kochi, Kerala

1947

2.       

ICAR - Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute, Barrackpore, West Bengal

1947

3.       

ICAR - Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Kochi, Kerala

1957

4.       

ICAR - Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai, Maharashtra

1961

5.       

ICAR - National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

1983

6.       

ICAR - Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Bhubaneswar, Orissa

1987

7.       

ICAR - Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture, Chennai, Tamil Nadu

1987

8.       

ICAR - Directorate of Coldwater Fisheries Research, Bhimtal, Uttarakhand

1987

 

Other Institutes

S.no

Name of the Institute

Established (year)

Established under

1.

Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA), Kochi

1972

Ministry of Commerce

2.

Central Institute of Fisheries Nautical and Engineering Training (or CIFNET), Kochi

1963

Government of India, Ministry of Fisheries & Animal Husbandry & Dairying.

3.

National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB), Hyderabad

2006

 

4.

National Institute of Fisheries Post Harvest Technology and Training (NIFPHATT)

1952

 

 

Fisheries Education in India

To fulfil the challenging demand of food security for increasing population it is essential to exploit the available resources by scientific and judicious utilization of resources in sustainable manner through trained manpower. To accomplish this need, fisheries education in India started way back in 1969 with the establishment of College of Fisheries at Mangalore under the aegis of University of Agriculture Science (UAS), Bangalore. Since then, total 32 fisheries education institutes have been established all over the India which strengthened the fisheries research, education and extension by fulfilling the need of technical manpower. Professional fisheries education is provided by various fisheries institutes under State Agricultural and Veterinary/Animal Sciences Universities which provide Bachelor, Master and Doctoral degrees.

 

Bachelor's of Fisheries Science (B.F.Sc): Bachelor degree in fisheries science started in 1969 with the establishment of College of Fisheries, Mangalore, Karnataka, under Karnataka Veterinary Animal and Fisheries Science University and subsequently the professional degree programs in fisheries were initiated under the Agricultural Universities of all the maritime states in the country as well as in the inland states. Bachelor Degree in Fisheries Science is a 4 years degree course which one can pursue after 10+2 with PCB or PCMB or Agriculture subjects in various SAUs.

 

Master of Fisheries Science (M.F.Sc): Fisheries education at the University level in India started in the traditional Universities offering post graduate course in Zoology with certain specialization in Fish and Fisheries, Fish Biology and Limnology & Fisheries. Fisheries Education as applied science started in 1961 with the establishment of Central Institute of Fisheries Education (CIFE),Mumbai, followed by the establishment of College of Fisheries Mangalore, Karnataka and thereafter in other state Agricultural Universities. Post graduation in fisheries provides M.F.Sc degree in various sub-disciplines such as Aquaculture, Fisheries Resource Management, Aquatic Environment Management, Fish Genetics and Breeding, Biotechnology, Aquatic Animal Health Management, Fish Extension, Fish Processing. This is a 2 years professional course as per the recommendation of ICAR. The candidates possessing B.F.Sc degree are eligible for this degree program.

 

Ph.D. in Fisheries Science: Ph.D. is a 3 years program with provision of course work and research. Candidates can get Ph.D. after successful completion of M.F.Sc in respective disciplines. Government Fisheries Colleges in the country which provide education in Fisheries Science are listed below.

Sr. No.

Name of College

Location

University

Established Year

1.       

Central Institute of Fisheries Education

Mumbai, Maharashtra

Central Institute of Fisheries Education (Deemed University) University

1961

2.       

College of Fisheries

Mangalore, Karnataka

Karnataka Veterinary Animal and Fisheries Science University

1969

3.       

Fisheries College and Research Institute

Thoothukudi, Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University

1977

4.       

College of Fisheries

Panagad, Kerala

Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies

1979

5.       

College of Fisheries

Rangailunda, Orissa

Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology

1981

6.       

College of Fisheries

Ratnagiri, Maharastra

Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyaapeeth

1981

7.       

College of Fisheries

Pantnagar, Uttaranchal

G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology

1985

8.       

College of Fisheries

Dholi, Bihar

Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University

1986

9.       

College of Fisheries

Raha, Assam

Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat

1988

10.   

College of Fisheries Science

Veraval, Gujarat

Kamdhenu University , Gandhi Nagar

1991

11.   

College of Fisheries Science

Muthukur, Andhra Pradesh

Sri. Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupati

 

1992

12.   

College of Fisheries Science

Kolkatta, West Bengal

West Bengal University of Animal & Fishery Sciences

1995

13.   

College of Fisheries

Lembucherra, Tripura

Central Agricultural University, Imphal 

1998

14.   

College of Fisheries

Udaipur, Rajasthan

Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology

2003

15.   

College of Fisheries

Srinagar, Jammu  & Kashmir

Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology

2005

16.   

College of Fisheries Science

Nagpur, Maharastra

Maharashtra Animal and Fishery Sciences University

2006

17.   

College of Fisheries

Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh

Acharya Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology

2007

18.   

College of Fisheries

Udgir, Latur, Maharastra

Maharashtra Animal and Fishery Sciences University

2007

19.   

College of Fisheries

Ludhiana, Panjab

Guru Angad Dev Veterinary And Animal Sciences University

2009

20.   

College of Fisheries

Kawardha, Chhattisgarh

Dau Shri Vasudev Chandrakar Kamdhenu Vishwavidyalaya

2010

21.   

College of Fisheries

Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh

Nanaji Deshmukh Veterinary Science University Adhartal, Jabalpur

2012

22.   

Dr. M. G. R Fisheries College and Research

 Ponneri, Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu Dr.J.Jayalalithaa Fisheries University

2012 

23.   

College of Fisheries Science

Navsari, Gujarat

Kamdhenu University

2014

24.   

College of Fisheries Science and Research Centre

Etawah, Uttar Pradesh

Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology

2015

25.   

College of Fisheries 

Engineering

Nagapattinam 

Tamil Nadu Dr.J.Jayalalithaa Fisheries University (TNJFU)

2015

26.   

Post-Graduate Institute of Fisheries Education and Research

Gandhinagar, Gujarat

Kamdhenu University

2015

27.   

College of Fisheries Science

Gumla,  Jharkhand 

Birsa Agricultural University

2015

28.   

College Of Fishery

Pebbair, Telengana

P.V. Narasimha Rao Telengana Veterinary University

2017

29.   

Institute of Fisheries Postgraduate Studies

VaniyanchavadiTamil-Nadu

Tamil Nadu Dr.J.Jayalalithaa Fisheries University (TNJFU)

2017

30.   

Dr. M. G. R Fisheries College and Research

 Thalainayeru, Tamil Nadu

Tamilnadu Dr.J.Jayalalithaa Fisheries University

2017

31.   

College of Fisheries

Kishanganj, Bihar

Bihar Animal Sciences University

2018

32.   

College of Fisheries Science

Hisar, Haryana

Haryana Agricultural University

2018

Upcoming Fisheries Colleges:

Sr. no.

Name of College

Location

University

1.       

College of Fisheries Science

Amravati

Maharashtra Animal and Fishery Sciences University

2.       

College of Fisheries

Mathura

U. P. Pandit Dayal Upadhyaya Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidyalaya Evam Go-Anusandhan Sansthan

3.       

College of Fisheries

Nonor, Dattiya

Rani Lakshmi Bai Central Agricultureal University

 

Private Colleges

Sr. No.

Name of College

Location

University

Established Year

1.       

Faculty of Fisheries, The Neotia University

 Kolkata, West Bengal

The Neotia University

2015 

2.       

School of Fisheries

 

Bhubaneswar, Khurda, Odisha, 

Centurion University Of Technology & Management

2005 

3.       

Faculty of Fisheries, ITM University

Gwalior

ITM University

1997

4.       

Faculty of Fisheries 

 

Jamuhar, Bihar

Narayan Institute of Agricultural Sciences

2018

 

Diploma in Fisheries

There are so many colleges providing diploma in various streams of fisheries under different universities in different states such as Diploma in Fisheries, Diploma in Fisheries Engineering, Diploma in Aquaculture and so on. The primary aim of providing diploma to students is to produce trained manpower in the field of fisheries. The admission is done after completing 12th in science field having PCB group (Physics, Chemistry and Biology). The diploma course is of 2 years. The diploma holder students get jobs in various companies like Fish Processing Plant, Fish Culture Plant, Shrimp Culture Plant, Field Manager, Field Assistant, Antibiotics Companies, Feed Companies, Fish Farm, Seed Production Farm, Fisheries Assistant etc.

 

Colleges which provide Diploma in Fisheries Science are listed below.

Sr. No.

Name of College

Location

University

1.       

Fisheries Diploma College

 Gaiwadi, TuwandewadiMaharashtra

 Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyaapeeth, Ratnagiri

2.       

Fishery Polytechnic,

Bhavadevarapalli 

Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University

 

3.       

Agro-Polytechnic Centere

Rangeilunda, Berhampur, Orissa

Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Rangeilunda, Berhampur, Orissa

4.       

Diploma in Fisheries

Saharanpur 

Glocal University

5.       

Fishries Polytechnic

Rajpur (Dhamdha)

Dau Shri Vasudev Chandrakar Kamdhenu Vishwavidyalaya, Durg, Chhattisgarh

Admission Process:  There is 15% all-India quota in State Agricultural Universities which are filled through all India Entrance Examination conducted by ICAR for agriculture and allied subjects. The eligibility for this test is 10+2 with PCB/PCMB with a minimum of 50% marks. Some states also conduct state level entrance test for getting admitted in agriculture and allied courses. For admission in M.F.Sc in SAUs and CIFE, All India Entrance Examination is similarly conducted every year by ICAR. The eligibility is successful completion of B.F.Sc program with minimum 60%.

Job Opportunities: There are good job opportunities in fisheries sector as many colleges are strengthening their faculty positions as per ICAR norms. State Fisheries Departments are also recruiting fisheries professionals.

Government Sector: Fisheries graduates can join Central or State Government jobs. Fisheries graduates are recruited as Fisheries Officers in Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Fisheries Department of Central and State Government as Assistant Fisheries Development Officer, District Fisheries Development Officer, Fisheries Extension Officer, Assistant Director of Fisheries and Assistant Commissioner of Fisheries etc.

Institutes/Universities and Research Centres: There is a scope to become scientist in fisheries after completing Masters degree and qualifying the examination of Agriculture Scientist Recruitment Board (ASRB) of Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR), Pusa, New Delhi. The Masters and Doctoral degree holder students can join the Universities for teaching, Junior Research Officer (JRO), Senior Research Officer (SRO), Lecturer, Subject Matter Specialist (SMS) or Assistant Professor (AP). M.F.Sc graduate with two years of experience can apply for subject matter specialist in Krishi Vigyan Kendra. Some Private Institutes of Environmental or Fisheries Sciences providing jobs for fisheries degree holder as fisheries tutor. The fisheries post graduates can also join Fisheries Survey of India (FSI). They also get Junior Research Fellowship (JRF), Senior Research Fellowship (SRF) and Research Associateship (RA) under various projects run by government organizations, institutes and Universities.

Banking Sector: Many banks like NABARD, Nationalized Banks, NCDC (National Cooperative Development Corporation), etc, are appointing fisheries graduates in rural development activities in managerial posts for implementing government policies for fishermen. The private and public sector banks are also recruiting fisheries professionals for developing their business in fisheries sector.

Private and Public Sector: Fisheries professionals are required in private and public sectors for working in their offices, laboratories, farms, customer care units, fisheries industries like fish processing plant, surimi processing plant, fish meat plants, fish oil plants, fish aril plants etc. Feed manufacturing companies are providing good jobs in manufacturing, marketing and extension work. Several probiotics and medical companies are providing good employment potential which supply probiotics for aquaculture. Also there is job opportunity in fish products exporting companies.

Self-employment/ Entrepreneurship: Fisheries professionals can establish their own business in the field of aquaculture, fish processing, feed manufacturing plant, fish product and by product industry. Agro-tourism based business such as fish hotel, fish pond, fishing activities could also be explored. They can also earn by doing marketing business of fisheries product.

Outsourcing/ Fisheries Consultants: Business Processing Outsourcing (BPO) and Knowledge of Processing Outsourcing (KPO) is gaining lot of importance in the recent years. Big organisations like NGOs, Private Companies as well as Project Management Units of Central and States Governments require fisheries professionals as Consultants.

NGOs: For the ecological and social benefits of fisheries community so many people are working in this field by establishing co-operative societies for fish farmers. Some fisheries co-operative societies have developed their own business.

Overseas Employment: International agencies keep their doors open for the talented and experienced fisheries professionals working in the field of culturing fishes and fish processing, through Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nation Development Program (UNDP), United Nations Volunteers (UNV), Asian Development Bank (ADB), Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia Pacific (NACA). Many countries also provide good jobs in various projects.

(Dr Niranjan Sarang teaches at the Department of Fisheries Resources Management, College of Fisheries (DSVCKV), Kawardha, Chhattisgarh. Prof. Kashti Prerna Deorao is pursuing Ph.D from Fisheries Polytechnic (DSVCKV), Rajpur Dhamdha, Durg, Chhattisgarh) Views expressed are personal.