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Special Content

Issue no 48, 25 February-3 March 2023

PMKVY 4.0 Futuristic Approach to Skilling


Dr. Rajesh Kumar

Vinayak Kumar Jha


The commencement of the Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana 4.0 (PMKVY 4.0), which aims to skill lakhs of youths during 2022-26, was announced by the Union Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman during the Budget presentation on 1st February 2023. The scheme's primary goal is to revamp the current skill eco-system by encouraging innovative funding and digitization, etc. in order to make it more adaptable, quick, and tailored to address the needs of the present and the future. The PMKVY is an ambitious project that has successfully completed its three cycles. The cycle (4.0) mainly focuses on the skill development of youth through high quality short and long-term skill development programs with end-to-end implementation framework approach which will lead to the productive employment opportunities and career progression for the youth.


PMKVY: A Historical Perspective: To have a clear understanding of PMKVY 4.0, we need to understand what led us this far. When the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE), Goverment of India was formed in 2014 with the overarching goal of fostering the growth of entrepreneurship and skilling in India, the main focus was on developing an end-to-end implementation framework that offered high quality short and long term skill development (SD) programmes, which would result into fruitful employment and career opportunities. With this in mind, the MSDE launched Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojanain 2015 to encourage young people to take up free short term training and award them with skill certification. After successful implementation of PMKVY between 2015 and 2016, the second version known as PMKVY 2.0 was announced for the next four years between 2016 and 2020. PMKVY 2.0 focused on enhancing alignment with other goals and initiatives of the Indian government, such as "Make in India," "Digital India," and the "Swachh Bharat Mission," while also broadening the intervention's coverage of sectors and geographical areas. In order to extend skill-development programmes to migrant workers, a supplementary programme named "Garib Kalyan Rozgar Abhiyan'' was implemented during that period. Taking the journey forward, PMKVY 3.0 was launched and implemented between 2020 and 2022 taking into account past learnings and experiences. In PMKVY 3.0, there was a massive change in the way training was carried out; a demand-driven, bottom-up technique was employed. As a more decentralised institutional platform for identifying local skilling requirements, District Skill Committees were formed. In order to alleviate the scarcity of trained health workers and broaden the scope of healthcare services, PMKVY 3.0's Tailored Crash Course Plan for COVID Warriors was launched in 2021. The scheme has helped in bridging the acute crisis of health workers as witnessed during the COVID pandemic outbreak. With an objective to integrate vocational and general education as per the mandate of "National Education Policy (NEP) 2020" and as an expansion of skilling programmes in the educational ecosystem, "Skill Hubs" initiative was also launched under the PMKVY 3.0 in consultation with the Ministry of Education and other Ministries/Departments of Government of India.

Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana



19.86 Lakh Candidates Trained/Oriented



1.10 Crore Candidates Trained/Oriented



6.10 Lakh Candidates Trained/Oriented

Total: 1,35,97,399 Candidates Trained/Oriented

Source: MSDE, Govt. of India, 2023


As per the Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship (MSDE) Report19.86 lakhs candidates were trained/oriented under the PMKVY 1.0 during 2015, whereas 1.10 crore candidates were trained/oriented under the PMKVY 2.0 during 2016-20 and 6.10 candidates were trained/oriented under PMKVY 3.0. It means a total 1,35,97,399 candidates were trained/oriented under the flagship programme PMKVY 1.0 to PMKVY 3.0 during 2015-22. Further under the Sub Schemes Categories of Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana, 1.20 lakh candidates were trained/oriented for COVID Crash Course Programme, whereas 1.25 lakh candidates were trained/oriented for Garib Kalyan Rojgar Yojna. and 2.27 lakh candidates were enrolled for Skill Hub Initiatives.


PMKVY 4.0 to Focus on New Era Courses for Industry: The recently announced PMKVY 4.0 will be implemented between 2022 and 2026 with emphasis on new era courses for industry including Coding, Artificial Intelligence, Robotics, Mechatronics, IoT (Internet of Things), 3D Printing, Drones, and Soft Skills. The strategy devised for this scheme has clear objectives and a comprehensive approach. The programme looks to create a platform for both the sides of the market and proficiently meet the demand and supply with the help of system revamp by adding new technologies, creative funding ideas, and digital innovation. Its goal is to foster an enabling ecosystem for youths to acquire skills and choose a career path. In order to meet the objectives, the entire digital system for providing skills will further be expanded with the establishment of a unified Skill India Digital platform. It will facilitate formal skilling depending on demands, to establish connections with employers and to provide access to entrepreneurial programmes.


Fundamentals of PMKVY 4.0: Training Ecosystem: The programme is made up of a streamlined training ecosystem with a nationwide group of assessors and trainers who provide on-the-job training during brief training sessions. It also stresses on stronger industry connections by utilising shared infrastructure for training and curriculum development, etc. An integrated web - based system for digitising the training ecosystem has also been considered

Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana 4.0

Basic Tenets

Forms of Instructions

Training Ecosystem

Short Term Training

Training Providers

Recognition of Prior Learning


Special Projects


Source: MSDE, Govt. of India, 2023


Training Providers: Numerous training experts from different educational institutions like schools, colleges, universities, etc. will be recruited as part of the Skill Hubs, and training facilities from other Ministries/Departments such Tool Rooms, Army Skill Centers, etc. will additionally be taken into account.

Candidates: Pre-registration is available in both online and offline formats. Following the registration, candidates have the option to choose their course of study and training facility as well as get career counseling to help them choose a profession or role. Prior to the commencement of the training, they will get basic knowledge about the course, the trainer's qualifications, raw materials, etc. The programme requires applicants to contribute in order to increase responsibility and a feeling of ownership. Applicants will also be monitored for a year after certification.


PMKVY 4.0: Forms of Instructions

Short Term Training (STT): The STT courses typically need between 200 and 600 hours of instruction (2 to 6 months). The training will be provided in recognised and connected Training Centres and is aligned with the National Skills Qualification Framework (NSQF).


Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL): Indian youngsters can earn industry-relevant skill certification to RPL. Under the RPL component of the programme, anyone with past learning experiences or skills can register, be tested, and get certification. RPL mostly targets those working in unregulated sectors. Additionally, RPL with Reskilling and upskilling must be offered. Depending on the needs of the business, the training/orientation time under RPL ranges from 12 to 120 hours


Special Projects: This part is intended for initiatives that necessitate a little departure from the terms and circumstances of short-term training under PMKVY due to unique requirements related to location, demographics, and social groupings.


PMKVY 4.0: Implementation Framework

The Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship (MSDE) will provide the broad policy framework for smooth implementation of PMKVY 4.0 in consultation with various stakeholders. Whereas, a unified regulatory framework shall be provided by National Council of Vocational Education & Training (NCVET). It will recognize the Awarding Bodies (ABs) and Assessment Agencies (AAs) and will ensure quality for National Skill Qualification Framework (NSQF) courses through Certified Trainers and Assessors etc. National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) will provide assistance to the MSDE in effective execution of the PMKVY 4.0 through its technical and knowledge support.


PMKVY 4.0 : Implementation Framework

Overall Policy Framework

Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship (MSDE)

Regulatory Framework

National Council of Vocational Education & Training (NCVET)

Knowledge Partner

National Skill Development Corporation

Ministries/Departments/Institutions (MoEF, AICTE etc.)

Implementing Agencies

Directorate General of Training

Assessment & Awarding

State Education Boards Sector Skill Councils

Industrial Training

Institutes (ITIs)

Other entities recognized by NCVET

Trainer & Assessor Training

National Skill Training Institutes

Centre of Excellences

Industrial Training

Institutes (ITIs)

Other institutions like

Tool Room/Technology

Centre, SDI etc.

Training Providers

Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Kendra

Skill Hubs (Schools Colleges, Universities)

Industry Partners, Army Skill Centres, Tool Rooms, Hunar Kendra, Private Training Providers

Industry Partners:


District Skill Committees

Skill India Portal

Source: MSDE, Govt. of India, 2023



Various implementing agencies such as NSDC, Directorate General of Training (DGT), agencies/Institutions of Ministries/ Departments will also be responsible for smooth implementation of this flagship programme. For the purpose of assessment, certification and award, State Education Boards, Sector Skill Councils and Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and other entities recognized by NCVET shall be entrusted. National Skill Training Institutes (NSTIs), Centre of Excellences (CoEs), other Institutions like Tool Room, Technology Centres, Skill Development Institutes (SDIs) and other premier Institutes shall be entrusted for Training of Trainers and Assessors.


As per the mandate of National Skill Qualification Framework, empanelled Training Providers (TPs), Training Centers (TCs), Industrial Training Institutes, Schools, Higher Education Institutes (HEIs), Skill Hubs along with training centres of other Ministries/Department (Tool Rooms, Army Skill Centre, etc.), industry partners and private training providers will be responsible for imparting quality training. District Skill Development Plan (DSDPs) prepared/conducted by District Skill Committees (DSCs) shall be the baseline for PMKVY 4.0 for establishing more Training Centres/Skill Hubs and for selection of job roles/courses in the line with the industry requirement.


Extensive use of digital platforms through Skill India Portal (SIP) or any other shall be used to monitor and track the entire training process of candidates which will include enrolment, training, assessment and certification. It will be linked with Aadhaar-enabled biometric attendance. In order to promote industry interface, industry partners will be encouraged to provide assistance in the development of curriculum, training, infrastructural and financial support. Industry partners will also provide key inputs in identifying skill gaps and new job opportunities etc. Finance Minister Smt. Nirmala Sitharaman has also highlighted the need of creating 30 Skill India International Centres in various States to prepare young people for employment opportunities outside. She also mentioned that Skill India Digital platform will further extend the digital ecosystem for skilling. PMKVY 4.0 promises to have a planned and systematic mechanism which will surely create a plethora of employment opportunities for youth, if properly implemented.


(The author Dr. Rajesh Kumar is Assistant Professor (Sr.) & Coordinator, Department of Mass Communication and Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat, Central University of Jharkhand, Ranchi. He can be reached at rajesh.kumar@cuj.ac.in)

Views expressed are personal


The Co-author Vinayak Kumar Jha is PhD Scholar, Department of Mass Communication, Central University of Jharkhand, Ranchi. He can be reached at vkjmessi@gmail.com)

Views expressed are personal